|Impact Analysis and Study for
Fiberglass Vintage Goalie Masks
A special mould was constructed to accept the installation of 8 impact transducers at various locations within the forehead
and facial areas. There were 3 masks constructed, 3/4 Higgins, Harrison Fuhr/Meloche, Fibrosport Parent, all from this same
mould. All three masks were shaped according to the originals, however the only cut-outs made were for the eyes. We
removed the areas from the mould where the soft tissue of the face would be and replaced it with a silicone substance. We
further covered the mould with a thin layer of silicone to simulate a layer of skin. All 3 masks were calculated with the same
surface placement area and were all form fit to the mould. The impact transducers were located as per the following;
A - Center of the forehead
B - 1 1/2 inches to the right forehead
C - 1 1/2 inches to the left forehead
D - Center in the bridge of the nose
E - Right Highest point on cheek bone
F - Left Highest point on cheek bone
G - Center of the upper jaw just beneath the nose
H - Center of the chin
The hydraulic ram and speed encoder were calibrated to apply the identical impact pressures that a puck would create
making a direct non deflectional hit at speeds of 60, 70, and 80 MPH. The actual impact device was a modified hockey puck
fixed on a spring release device attached to the ram. Each mask was firmly fixed to the mould which was placed on a stantion
with a spring loaded platform. A series of impacts were accomplished. The impacts were directed to form a non-deflectional
strike and as close to the locations of the transducers as possible. Specifically as close as we could possibly align the impact
device. Forty Eight impacts were recorded to each mask. Two impacts were delivered to each location at each speed. One
hundred and forty four impacts in total. The results were recordered and data labeled.
One quarter inch sports padding (the highest grade we could obtain) was applied to the mould insuring that there were no
voids and 100 percent of the normal contact surface to the mask area was covered. The series of impacts were repeated as
performed in phase one. Again, all results were recorded and data labeled.
The quarter inch sports padding was removed and thirty five percent of the surface area that is in direct contact with the
mask was also removed. To be specific, the mould was shaved down to create voids and or air gaps between the mould and
the test masks. The areas that housed the impact transducers were not altered. These areas remained in direct contact with
the mask. The series of impacts were repeated as performed in phase one and two. Again, all results were recorded and data
The voids created in phase two were filled with the same high grade sports padding. Each void was carefully filled to insure
that we again had 100 percent surface area contact. The series of impacts were repeated as performed in phase one, two
and three. Again, all results were recorded and data labeled.
Due to the results recorded from phases one to four we applied deflection ridges to the Higgins mask as close to the
deflection ridges that were on the Fibrosport mask. This was accomplished to prove or disprove our theory why the results
were as recorded. The series of impacts were repeated as performed in phase one, two and three. Again, all results were
recorded and data labeled. Note the Higgins mask was the only subject mask for this phase.
All three subject masks were inspected for cracks and seperations. Non were visable.
We created a number of fibreglass test pieces in various curvatures. There were three different layering sequences.
1 - Full sheets no overlapes, 14 layers of a 6 ounce S-Glass weave
2 - Overlaped edges on the inner 10 layers of a 6 ounce S-Glass weave and 2 full sheets on top and bottom
3 - Full sheets of a combination of 6 ounce S-Glass and a 12 ounce matte, 10 and 2.
The test pieces were all cut to the same lenght and width. They were all placed in the same jig. Presure was applioed to each
test piece until breakage. All results were recorded and data labled.
TEST MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT:
A - Digital Highspeed Impact recorder with multiple feeds and real time recording
B - Eight Digital Impact Transducers
C - Custom and Special constructed mould
D - Three Fiberglass Vintage Style Masks constructed from the same Custom Mould
E - Digitally controlled high speed hydraulic ram
F - Modified ram attachment
G - Digital Video Recorder
H - Custom Stantion with a spring mounted platform
I - Digital Linear Encoder / Speed Reference
October 22nd, 2008.
We are in the process of building a new mould with 3 different masks. We will be repeating this study, with
modifications. The new study will have added phases with purportional levels. The purpose of this study is
to add enhanced data, further conclusions and support of the previous theory and conclusions.